Monday, December 14, 2009

23 - Radiation sources for Brachytherapy

Commonly used radiation sources (radionuclides) for brachytherapy
Caesium-137 (137Cs)γ-ray30.17 years0.662 MeV
Cobalt-60 (60Co)γ-rays5.26 years1.17, 1.33 MeV
Iridium-192 (192Ir)γ-ray74.0 days0.38 MeV (mean)
Iodine-125 (125I)X-rays59.6 days27.4, 31.4 and 35.5 keV
Palladium-103 (103Pd)X-ray17.0 days21 keV (mean)
Ruthenium-106 (106Ru)β-particles1.02 years3.54 MeV

Saturday, August 22, 2009

22 - Honeycomb lung on chest X-ray causes

Here is a list of all the causes which result in the Honeycomb appearance of the lung on chest X-ray :

1. Cystic fibrosis
2. Cystic bronchiectasis
3. Collagen disorders : Rheumatoid arthritis and Scleroderma
4. Drugs : Busulphan, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan and Nitrofurantoin
5. Pneumoconioses
6. Langerhan cell histiocytosis
7. Interstitial lung diseases
8. Idiopathic interstitial fibrosis ( Fibrosing necrotizing alveolitis )
9. Neurofibromatosis
10. Tuberous sclerosis
11. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis 

Mnemonic : CD(bbcmn) SPLINTER

Thursday, August 20, 2009

21 - PGI chandigarh December 2007 Radiology Mcqs

1q: Most common cancer due to radiation ?

a. leukemia
b. bronchogenic carcinoma
c. Thyroid carcinoma
d. breast cancer
e. bone tumor

2q: Contrasts used in USG ?

a. urograffin
b. ultragraffin
c. sonavist
d. conray
e. barium

3q: double bubble sign is seen in ?

a. duodenal atresia
b. ileal atresia
c. pyloric stenosis
d. pancreatic divisum
e. volvulus

4q: Radiation emitted by Ir-192 is ?

a. 0.5 MeV
b. 0.6 MeV
c. 0.66 MeV
d. 0.666 MeV
e. 0.47 MeV

5q: Which of the following statements are true about MRCP ?

a. MRI is used to obtain the images
b. CT is used for the images
c. it shows the biliary tree
d. dye has to be injected endoscopically
e. it is an invasive procedure

Saturday, May 2, 2009

20 - AIIMS June 1998 Radiology Mcqs with answers

1q: which of the following is used in both teletherapy and brachytherapy ?

a. cobalt-60
b. I-131
c. Iridium-127
d. Palladium

2q: a neonate suffering from respiratory distress, chest x-ray showing multiple air filled spaces, the Differential Diagnosis is all except ?

a. congenital lobar aplasia of lung
b. congenital lung cysts
c. congenital adenomatoid malformations
d. congenital diaphragmatic hernia

3q: earliest diagnosis of renal tuberculosis (TB) can be done by ?

a. USG abdomen
b. Angiography
c. CT scan
d. IVP

4q: william’s syndrome has an association with ?

a. coarctation of aorta
b. congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis
c. congenital supravalvular aortic stenosis
d. VSD

Saturday, April 25, 2009

19 - Kerley A, Kerley B and Kerley C lines

As pulmonary venous pressure rises, the upper lobe veins distend. They initially reach the size of, and eventually become larger than, the lower lobe vessels (thus reversing the normal ‘gravity-dependent’ pattern). This is described as ‘upper lobe venous diversion’ and is often the first recognized radiological sign of pulmonary venous hypertension . 

If the pulmonary venous pressure continues to rise and exceeds the plasma oncotic pressure, fluid will begin to accumulate in the lung interstitium. This is known as interstitial pulmonary oedema. Radiologically this is associated with the appearance of interstitial (Kerley B) lines . These lines were first described in 1933 and represent thickening of interlobular septa (as a result of fluid accumulation) within the lung. They were originally classified into three groups:

Kerley B lines are shorter (1 cm or less) interlobular septal lines, found predominantly in the lower zones peripherally, and parallel to each other but at right angles to the pleural surface.
The originally described Kerley C lines are now designated as due to overlapping  Kerley C lines. The term is no longer used

Septal lines can be differentiated from blood vessels as the latter are not visible in the outer 1 cm of the lung. In addition, deep septal lines do not branch uniformly (as is the case for blood vessels) and are seen with a greater clarity (as they represent a sheet of tissue) than a blood vessel of similar calibre. Under normal circumstances septal lines caused by interstitial fluid overload would be expected to disappear after suitable reduction in pulmonary venous pressure. Exceptionally, however, they may persist, e.g. in long-standing PVH, where haemosiderin deposition or fibrosis has occurred. Other causes of persistent septal lines include idiopathic interstitial fibrosis, lymphangitis carcinomatosa and pneumoconiosis. 

Differentiation between the causes on plain radiography may be helped by ancillary signs (e.g. cardiomegaly and calcification of the mitral valve which both favour PVH as the diagnosis). Other signs of interstitial fluid overload include perihilar haze (loss of visible clarity of the lower lobe and hilar vessels) and peribronchial cuffing (apparent thickening of proximal bronchial walls as a result of interstitial fluid accumulating around their walls). As the pulmonary venous pressure continues to increase fluid begins to accumulate in the alveolar spaces. This is termed alveolar oedema ( Fig. 26.3 ). Kerley B lines, airspace nodules, bilateral symmetric consolidation in the mid and lower lung zones and pleural effusions may be seen.

Thursday, April 2, 2009

18 - AIIMS june 1999 radiology mcqs with answers

1q: a lady has a lytic lesion in X-ray of the upper end of humerus . the diagnosis is ?

a. osteosarcoma
b. unicameral bone cyst
c. osteoclastoma
d. osteochondroma

2q: the radiological hallmark of osteosarcoma is ?

a. soap bubble appearance
b. sun ray appearance
c. osteoid formation of neoplastic cells
d. cotton wool appearance

3q: intracavitary radiotherapy is used in the treatment of ?

a. carcinoma stomach
b. carcinoma cervix
c. carcinoma oesophagus
d. carcinoma renal cell

4q: X-ray shows soap bubble appearance in ?

a. neuroblastoma
b. cystic lymphangiectasis
c. meconium ileus
d. multiple cystic kidney

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

17 - radiological signs mcqs part 2

6q: moth eaten appearance in V/Q scan in lung is seen in ?

a. bronchiolitis obliterans
b. asthma
c. bronchitis
d. adult respiratory distress syndrome

7q: boot shaped heart is seen in ?

a. ebstein’s anamoly
b. tetralogy of fallot
c. ASD
d. VSD

8q: sitting duck sign is seen in ?

a. ASD
b. VSD
c. PDA

9q: box shaped heart is seen in ?

a. ebstein’s anomaly
b. ASD
c. VSD

10q: floating water lilly sign is seen in ?

a. aspergillosis
b. dracunculosis
c. hydatid cyst
d. trichinella

16 - radiological signs mcqs part 1

1q: rabbit ear sign is seen in ?

a. bilateral subdural hematoma in CT
b. unilateral subdural hematoma in CT
c. bilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage
d. unilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage

2q: dawson’s fingers are seen in ?

a. MRI brain of multiple sclerosis
b. MRI brain of sarcoidosis
c. MRI brain of meningitis
d. MRI brain of rheumatoid arthritis

3q: light bulb sign is seen in ?

a. posterior dislocation of hip
b. posterior dislocation of shoulder
c. anterior dislocation of shoulder
d. anterior dislocation of shoulder

4q: golden S sign is seen in ?

a. right lower lobe lung collapse
b. right upper lobe lung collapse
c. left upper lobe lung collapse
d. right lower lobe lung collapse

5q: bat wing deformity of cerebral ventricles on CT/MRI is seen in ?

a. bilateral subdural hematoma
b. bilateral subarachnoid hemorrhage
c. agenesis of corpus callosum
d. agenesis of cerebral ventricles

Saturday, March 14, 2009

15 - AIIMS november 2001 radiology mcqs

1q: neuroendocrinal tumors can be best detected by ?

a. PET scan
b. HRCT scan
c. MRI
d. Radionuclide scan

2q: para meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is best diagnosed by ?

a. CT scan
b. MRI
d. PET

Subscribe Now: Feed

Visitors currently online